PAN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF LIFE SCIENCES
Volume 5, No. 1, April 2021
Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Immunoglobulin G Positivity among Adultsand Associated Factors in Lagos and Osun, Nigeria
Rukayat O. Lawal, Tawakalitu A. Ayinde, Rukayat Y. Odeshina, Waidi F. Sule*
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University, Oke-Baale, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
Background: Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are important, not only because they can cause blindness, encephalitis, genital herpes and neonatal herpes with high morbidity, but because active or reactivated herpes breaks vaginal mucosa exposing CD4+ CCR5+ T cells in sub-mucosa to HIV-1 during unprotected sexual intercourse. This cross-sectional study was therefore designed to assess the level of past exposure of apparently healthy adults to HSVs in selected hospitals in Lagos and Osun States, Nigeria
Methodology: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was designed to estimate proportions of consecutively selected adults in Lagos and Osun States, Nigeria, having HSV-1 and -2 IgG antibodies. A total of 270 sera were tested for HSV-1 and 2 IgG using ELISA kits. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16.0.
Results: Participants were aged 18-80 years (average: 33.9 years). Age 31-50 years, male gender, and ≤ secondary education were associated (p values: 0.001 – 0.05) with self-reports of STD, lip, and genital blisters. Overall, HSV-1 and -2 IgG positivity rates were respectively 98.9% and 56.3%. Groupspecific prevalence rates for HSV-1 IgG were about 100.0%; predictors of HSV-2 IgG were age 31-50 yrs (p = 0.05, odds ratio [OR]: 2.3); histories of having genital blister (p = 0.001 [OR: 16.4]) and STD (p = 0.001 [OR: 20.4]). With only one dual negativity, the dual positivity rate was slightly higher among males (56.3%) than females (55.1%); highest and lowest respectively among 31-50 yr old (62.8%) and 51-80 yr old (38.7%).
Conclusion: The near 100.0% and > 50.0% seroprevalence rates of HSV-1 and -2 IgG, respectively, indicated a high infection burden in Lagos and Osun. Age, histories of genital blister and STD significantly predicted HSV-2 IgG positivity.
Keywords:HSV infections, HSV-2 IgG positivity, predictor variables, dual positivity, Nigeria