PAN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF LIFE SCIENCES
Volume 4, No. 3, December 2020
Acute Toxicity of Tuber Peels of Tacca leontopetaliodes on the Biochemistry and Histology of Gills and Liver of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles
Bala S. Audu1*, Jamiu O. Omirinde2, Audu I. Wakawa3, Ibrahim A. Dalhatu1, Jacinta B. Sale1
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Jos, Nigeria
3Department of Biology, Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, Yobe State
Background: Increased rate of water pollution has detrimental effects on the health of fish and other aquatic organisms. This invariably affects humans by causing food insecurity, hunger and poverty. In an effort to curb this menace, this study investigated the effects of crude tuber peel extract of Tacca leontopetaliodes on the biochemical and histological parameters of Clarias gariepinus.
Methods: Acute toxicity (96 hr . LC50) test was conducted after a range finding test from which definitive test concentrations of 5.00, 4.00, 3.00, 2.00, and 1.00 g/L were obtained with 0.00 g/L as control. One hundred and twenty (120) mixed sex C. gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight, 12.5 g ± 0.5; length, 13.2 cm ± 0.5) were administered definitive concentrations of crude tuber peel extract in duplicate replication. Water quality parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity), tissue enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and histopathological assessments were analysed using standard procedures.
Results: Physico-chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide and alkalinity) of
test tanks containing graded concentrations of T. leontopetaliodes were significantly altered (p<0.05)
compared to the control tank. Similarly, the profile of hepatic enzymes (ALP, AST and ALT) displayed
marked progressive dose-dependent increase levels relative to the control. Histopathological examination revealed graded deterioration of gills and liver architecture with increase in the strength of the extract T. leontopetaliodes
Conclusion: The crude tuber peel extract of T. leontopetaliodes is toxic to fish, thus, washing, processing and discard of T. leontopetaliodes in and around riparian systems should be discouraged.
Keywords: Acute toxicity, Polynesian arrowroot, organs, enzymes and tissue pathology, African