PAN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF LIFE SCIENCES
Volume 3, No. 1, 2019
Norovirus Infection among Children Under 5 Years of Age In Niger-Delta Zone, Nigeria
Oghomwen F. Osazuwa1, Rachel Okojie2, Frederick O. Akinbo1
1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin City. Edo State, Nigeria
Background: Norovirus is now recognized as a major cause of gastroenteritis among children worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Norovirus infection among children that are less than five years of age in Niger-Delta zone, Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 263 subjects consisted of 163 children with diarrhea attending Paediat-ric clinics at the Central Hospital, Warri and Federal Medical Center, Yenagoa as well as 100 aged- and sex-matched healthy individuals that served as controls were recruited for this study. Demographic information was obtained through the aid of a well-structured questionnaires. Norovirus was detected by using a rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic assay kit (Biopanda reagents, Belfast, United Kingdom).
Results: The overall prevalence of Norovirus infection was 15.3%. The prevalence of Norovirus infection was significantly higher in Delta State than in Bayelsa State (22.9 % vs. 6.7%; OR= 3.6615; 95% CI = 1.378, 9.725; P=0.0092). Children that are less than 5 years of age attending day care centers are greatly affected by Norovirus infection (P=0.0044). Also, poor hand hygiene practice was also a significant risk factor for Norovirus infection among study subjects (P=0.0036). Furthermore, secretors were found to have a 1 to 334 fold increased risk of acquiring Norovirus infection in Delta State than in Bayelsa State (OR=19.28, 95% C.I, 1.1102, 334.68, P=0.0422).
Conclusion: The need for routine screening for Norovirus infection among children with diarrhea is advocated. Data from this study as well suggests that genetic and environmental factors play a role in Norovirus infection.
Keywords: Bayelsa and Delta States, Norovirus, Secretor status, Children under 5 years