PAN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF LIFE SCIENCES
Volume 2, No. 1, 2019
Differential Prevalence of Malaria Infection in Rural and Urban Out-Patient Clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria
Taiye S. Olusegun-Joseph1*, Mary A. Oboh2, Godwin O. Ovioma1, Ifeoluwa K. Fagbohun3, Uneke Okorafor4, Deborah D. Aina1
1Department of Biological Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos
2Parasitologie et Mycologie Unit, Département de Unique Biologie et Pathologie Hu-maine, 3. Faculté de Médecin, Université Cheikh Anta Diop De Dakar, Sénégal.
3Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos
4Department of Statistics, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos
Introduction: Nigeria is a country with diverse weather conditions supporting the substantial breeding of mosquitoes resulting in high malaria transmission. Mapping of malaria prevalence in areas with ongoing trans-mission is critical for effective distribution of control interventions. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in two different (rural and urban setting) endemic communities within a hypo-endemic state (Lagos) of Nigeria.
Methodology: The study targeted patients visiting clinics in both Ijede and Gbagada General Hospital between September and November 2017. All patients visiting each of the two hospitals with febrile complaints were recruited into the survey. Blood samples collected were examined using the standard thick and thin films stained with Giemsa.
Results: A total of 342 participants were screened out of which 108 (31.6%) were positive for P. falciparum by microscopy in both centers (Ijede centre 90 [43.9%]; Gbagada 18 [13.1%]). Children aged 1-10 years had the highest prevalence (43.6%) in both locations and this rate was significantly higher (P=0.001) in Ijede (63%) than in Gbagada (17%). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in infection rate between male (31.9 %) and female (31.3%) participants in both sites.
Conclusion: These findings give an overview of the “freedom of establishment” of malaria in an under-resourced area where all conditions serve as motivation for the breeding of malaria vectors. Distribution of control measures should strategically target rural areas where the burden of infection is high, and inhabitants of such areas have a disproportionate access to health care.
Keywords: Malaria, Prevalence, Hypo-endemic, Rural area, Urban area.