Pan African Journal of Life Sciences(PAJOLS)

A publication of Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences and Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences,
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso

e-ISSN: 2672-5924
Volume 4, No. 2, August 2020
Pages 43-50

DOI: 10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0220)

Morphophysiological Changes in the Liver of Wistar Rats Exposed to Acute and Chronic Concentrations of Vitellaria paradoxa
Racheal O. Folarin1, Jamiu O. Omirinde2*, Idris A. Azeez2, Naanman J. Plang2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria


Background: Vitellaria paradoxa is a tropical plant with diverse folkloric health benefits that could be optimised in health product development. This study was therefore designed to investigate morphophysiological changes in the liver of rats exposed to acute and chronic concentrations of Vitellaria paradoxa
Methods: A total of seventy-four (74) animals (Wistar rats and mice) were randomly assigned into two main groups based on toxicity plan; acute group consist of 9 sub-groups [0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 80,160, 320, 640 and 1280 mg/kg; n=6] while the chronic group consists of 4 sub-groups [0 (control), 32, 64 and 128 mg/kg; n=20] were orally exposed to Vitellaria paradoxa. The 96 hour LC50 value of Vitellaria paradoxa was calculated as 640mg/kg body
Results: The acute concentrations of Vitellaria paradoxa induced dose-dependent severity in clinical signs such as: twitching, increase rate of respiration, sedation, abdominal muscle contractions and increased motor activity. The chronic concentrated grades of Vitellaria paradoxa more particularly the higher doses (64 and 128mg/kg) elicited significantly increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) values compared to the control. Similarly, several hepatic histoarchitectural lesions such as: mild to severe, central venous and sinusoidal congestion, hepatic degeneration, and necrosis with loss of cord arrangement were strikingly visible at the higher doses. There was no significant difference in the haematological parameters across the different concentrations
Conclusion: This study has shown that Vitellaria paradoxa seems to be unsafe following a prolonged administration. Therefore, caution should be taken in its both short and long term usage
Keywords: Liver, hepatic enzymes, morphophysiological changes, haematology, Vitellaria paradoxa


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